04
Haikou Eco-Diversity Trail
HABITAT & VEGETATION
Native Flora and Fauna
Hainan Island is in the southern part of China, separated from Leizhou Peninsula by the 30-kilometer wide Qiongzhou Strait. Due to this separation, the flora and fauna of the island have distinctly evolved and produced many native species. Below are some of the native species in Hainan.

Native Plants of Hainan

  • Hainan Syzygium (Syzygium hainanense)
  • Hainan Paranephelium (Paranephelium hainanense)
  • Peltate Metapetrocosmea (Metapetrocosmea peltata)
  • Branched Stem Apostasia (Apostasia ramifera)

Native Mammals of Hainan

  • Hainan Gibbon (Hylobates concolor hainanus)
  • Hainan Eld's Deer (Cervus eldi hainanus)
  • Hainan Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista hainana)

Native Birds of Hainan

  • White-eared Night Heron (Gorsachius magnificus)
  • Hainan Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus hainanus)
  • Hainan Hill Partridge (Arborophila ardens)
  • Hainan Blue Flycatcher (Cyornis hainanus)

Native Reptiles and Amphibians of Hainan

  • Hainan Torrent Frog (Amolops hainanensis)
  • Hainan Pseudomoustache Toad (Leptobrachium hainanensis)
  • Hainan Knobby Newt (Tylototriton hainanensis)
  • Hainan Cave Gecko (Goniurosaurus hainanensis)
In order to survive in the hot, wet tropics, forest plants that live in tropical forests have had to develop special features through a process known as adaptation.
Leaves
The leaves of rainforest trees have adapted to cope with the large amount of rain. The leaves are big, thick, and waxy, and have "drip tips" to allow rain water to drain off quickly.
Barks
In drier, temperate deciduous forests, thick bark helps limit moisture evaporation from the tree's trunk. Since this is not as much of a concern in the high humidity of tropical forests, most trees have a thin, smooth bark. The smoothness of the bark may also make it difficult for other plants to grow on their surface.
Roots
Many large trees have huge ridges called buttresses near their base. They increase the surface area of a tree so that it can 'breathe in' more carbon dioxide and "breathe out" more oxygen. Nutrients in the soil are near the surface, so big rainforest trees have quite shallow roots. The buttresses also provide additional support to the tree.
Epiphytes
In tropical forests, thousands of plants grow on trees in order to absorb sunshine. Their roots do not reach the soil, so the plants get their food from air, water, and debris. These plants are called epiphytes, and include orchids, cactus, ferns, and philodendrons.
Lianas
Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. They have adapted to life in the rainforest by stretching their roots to the ground while climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and then send roots down to the ground.
Chinese Medicine Herbs
China has a long history in the medicinal use of indigenous plants. As medications found in the natural environment are believed to be immune of side-effects or addiction, the popularity of these herbal medications has sky rocketed in recent years.
Along the Eco Diversity Trail, visitors can find at least 20 Chinese medicinal herbs. Here are some examples:
  • Shiny-leaved Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum nitidum)
  • Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)
  • False Sumac (Brucea javanica)
  • Chinese Knotweed (Polygonum chinense)
  • Hairy Fig (Ficus hirta)
  • Plantain (Plantago major)
  • Glabrous Greenbrier (Smilax glabra)
  • False Pineapple (Pandanus kaida)
SPECIAL FEATURES
Endemic Plants of Hainan
Syzygium hainanense
Endemic Mammals of Hainan
Hainan Gibbon
Endemic Birds of Hainan
Hainan Hill Partridge
SPECIAL FEATURES
Endemic Plants of Hainan
Syzygium hainanense
Endemic Mammals of Hainan
Hainan Gibbon
Endemic Birds of Hainan
Hainan Hill Partridge